When my father was posted as an army officer to Bangalore, we lived on Pottery Road near a large slaughterhouse. The smell was infernal. There were fights all the time. We moved very quickly and for many years I completely blocked it from my memory.

When Swami Vivekananda went to America, as he neared Chicago, he is said to have commented that he could see a large black miasma over the city. It was then the largest stockyard and slaughterhouse in the country. It was also the main centre of crime and run by gangs.

Which are the most dangerous cities in India? I would put Rampur on top of my list. The police and armed forces are wary of it too: recently, a full scale attack by terrorists on a paramilitary division took place there. Murders and other forms of violent crime are common. It also has the last number of illegal slaughterhouses killing cows and buffaloes by the thousands every day. The Mewat region of Haryana, where police refuse to go, is the largest illegal slaughter centre in North India, and the centre of the wildlife parts smuggling trade as well. In Delhi it is the walled city Jama Masjid where cow skinning takes place in every lane.

Which is the most dangerous part of your city? Is it not the place where the slaughter of animals takes place? You don’t have to be a vegetarian to feel scared. You know instinctively that anyone who can kill an animal is immune to the morality of killing his fellow man.

In Bareilly recently, A Superintendant of Police tried to stop a truck carrying cows to Rampur. The people on the truck whipped out guns and shot at him. This is not an unusual occurrence. Every overloaded slaughter bound truck carries guns. Many of my people have been shot at. Certainly the first attempt of the driver is to run over the vehicle that is trying to stop it.

In 2009, an interesting study was published after 9 years of research: Slaughterhouses and Increased Crime Rates: An Empirical Analysis of the Spillover From “The Jungle” Into the Surrounding Community by Amy J. Fitzgerald, University of Windsor, Linda Kalof, Michigan State University, and Thomas Dietz, Michigan State University . It was published in Organization & Environment, June 2009

One hundred years ago the famous author Upton Sinclair wrote a book entitled The Jungle which detailed the working and living conditions of workers in and around the stockyard slaughterhouses in Chicago. In explaining the numerous fights instigated by slaughterhouse workers after hours, Sinclair noted a connection between these fights and the killing and dismembering of animals all day at work. According to Sinclair, “these two-o’clock-in- the-morning fights, are like a forest fire. Men who have to crack the heads of animals all day seem to get into the habit, and practice on their friends, and even on their families, between times. “The book denounced the massive slaughterhouse complex in Chicago as a “jungle,” and said that all crime and criminals in America were born out of it. 

The purpose of this study was to prove/disprove the Sinclair contention. The authors write: “Contemporary studies conducted by social scientists documenting the negative effects of slaughterhouses on communities have not attended to the possibility (which Sinclair alludes to) that the type of work undertaken in slaughterhouses is a contributing factor to increased crime rates in slaughterhouse communities. 

The meatpacking industry’s effect on physical environment and human health and on the high rate of injuries to workers has been carefully documented by scholars. This study analyzes population/jobs/crime data of 1994-2002 in 581 nonmetropolitan counties to analyze the effect of slaughterhouses on the surrounding communities. 

The findings indicate that slaughterhouse employment increases total arrest rates, arrests for violent crimes, rape, other sex offenses, vandalism, arson, robbery, assault and disorderly conduct in comparison with other industries. Research demonstrates that in communities where slaughterhouses open there is an increase in crime. For instance, documented crime increases include a 130% increase in violent crimes in Finney County, Kansas and a 63% increase in Lexington, Nebraska. The Canadian town of Brooks, Alberta witnessed a 70% increase in reported crime. Particularly telling is the fact that the arrests in counties with 7,500 slaughterhouse employees are more than double than in those where there are no slaughterhouse employees. This proves the existence of a “Sinclair effect” unique to the violent workplace of the slaughterhouse, a factor ignored previously in the sociology of violence. 

Various explanations for these increases in crime have been proposed. The objective of this study is (1) to test the theories that explain the crime increases and (2) to compare the effects of slaughterhouse employment on crime rates to the effects of similar industries, to see if the effects of slaughterhouses are unique. 

These were the theories that existed and this is what they found: 

a. “The workers were mainly immigrants and more likely to be involved in criminal activities . “A link between immigrant populations and crime rates, however, has not been found. On the contrary, studies have found that typical immigration does not result in crime increases.

b. “The much increased violence in these communities is not because of the slaughterhouses but because the workers are lower middle class , usually uneducated hard drinking people who are mainly young males.” Studies have found that age does not have a significant effect on some types of crimes, such as burglary and homicide.  

c. “Crime increases are the result of population booms and social disorganization. “In simple terms that means that the population is poor with a great tendency to shift jobs and migrate both in and out of the towns resulting in social disorganization and consequent increases in crime. But these explanations do not hold water because people in identical low paid, filthy, dangerous , blue collar towns with high unemployment and heavy alcohol habits have not got the same spike in violence. The study took similar towns with comparative industries : "Iron and steel forging, truck trailer manufacturing, motor vehicle metal stamping, sign manufacturing, and industrial laundering. These industries are categorized as manufacturing, have high immigrant worker concentrations, low pay, routinized labor, repetitive, and dangerous conditions. These were not associated with a rise in crime at all. In fact crime rates were on their way down. No connection was found between high unemployment rates and violent crime. 

The researchers concluded that: ”the industrialization of slaughter has the strongest adverse effects”. The unique work of killing and dismembering animals in slaughterhouses has resulted in the types of crime which Upton Sinclair referred to as ‘the jungle’ in the community. Fitzgerald says at the end "We believe that this is another of a growing list of social problems that need explicit attention."

The findings seem so obvious to me: When a person removes a non-human animal from moral consideration, he removes humans from moral consideration as well. This is seen in historical examples where colonialism or genocide used the idea of the victims as 'animals' to justify murder or oppression.

Someone who has the ability to rip thousands of animals throats is not a gentle and law abiding person. People who have made documentaries about slaughterhouses show workers kicking animals, playing football with chickens, throwing cow eyeballs at each other, urinating on bodies and masturbating on dying animals, a state of desensitization so extreme that it could only spill over into general violence. 

The rise of factory-style slaughter has inured our whole civilization to mass killing of animals and humans and enabled us to wreak havoc on each other, each war surpassing the previous one in its acceptance of mass murder of humans as a feature of conflict among nations. We are not shocked by the slaughter in Iraq or Afghanistan or even angry with the country that is doing it as mindlessly as they kill animals. In killing animals we kill the better part of ourselves, and pay the price in the form of wars, crime, obesity and poor health.

Go to a large factory slaughterhouse in your town. It is a terrifying experience, enough to make you cry and vomit. 

Suppose all the abattoirs are changed into soybean processing plants. Doesn’t even thinking about it make you feel better?

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Which chicken do you eat?

Last month, two people were caught in Bhubaneswar with hundreds of dead crows. They had fed the crows fish waste mixed with poison. They told the police that crow meat was used in fast food centres and dhabas to prepare chicken based items – Chinese chicken soup, chicken dumplings, chow mien etc. Since crow meat is cheaper than chicken the smaller eateries bought their meat. 

These two are only a small part of a large gang that does this in Orissa. Since the crow is a scavenger – and since the crow has been poisoned, god knows how many humans have had food poisoning after eating the meat. 

There are over 500 varieties of vegetables in India. How many varieties of chicken do you eat? Let me tell you.

In Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra you are likely to be eating dog-chicken. Many stray dogs are caught illegally by gangs and killed by bashing their heads in with stones or by feeding poisoned sweets. The skin, provided they are not suffering from skin disease is taken for the shoe industry. The meat is sold as chicken to small eateries.

In Bihar you will probably be eating rat chicken. The Musahars are a caste of very poor people who catch rats for a living. They sell the meat. In fact this is so common that the Bihar government, in the first year of Natish Kumar’s Chief Ministership, attempted to legalise the eating of rats and make it compulsory for eating establishments to carry at least one item of rat meat on their menus. It was felt that this would be better than disguising the meat as chicken. Unfortunately there was a lot of opposition to bringing the trade out into the open and the idea was dropped. However the meat continues to be sold.

In Tamil Nadu and Karnataka you will be eating squirrel-chicken. The Narikauravas are a tribe that roam around freely , ignored by the forest department inspite of the damage they wreak. They catch squirrels in cities and then sell them to the meat sellers. Sometimes they catch other small wild animals like mongoose as well and these becomes chicken as well.

In North India you will be eating cat-chicken and sometimes monkey- chicken. The Bahelias of Haryana are the equivalent of the Narikauravas. They kill anything that moves – humans included. All of them, including the women, are the main culprits in killing tigers and selling their parts. As soon as they get information about an available tiger the families decamp from Haryana and come back only when they have killed it. When they can’t find a big cat they roam the cities and kill all the small cats and the odd monkey which are sold to the dhabas , especially the ones making Northeastern, Tibetan and Chinese food. 

In Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra you get rabbit-chicken. Rabbit farming was promoted by the government as an industry in which everyone was supposed to get rich growing the animals at home. It did not happen as it is a very delicate animal and dies easily. So professional slaughterhouse people set up rabbit meat industries and pretending they were tribals to collect the subsidies. Unfortunately for them, the market for rabbit meat has not developed. So the rabbit slaughterers sell the meat as chicken.

But why should you care what “chicken” it is? A survey done by the SPCA Delhi about 10 years ago, showed that 78% of all chickens sold for their meat spent at least 4 days with broken wings and legs, limbs that were fractured while they were being loaded onto the trucks from Haryana. The law says that only one chicken can be in one cage. Nowhere in India do the poultries put less than 20 in a tempo cage. To have an untreated broken part of your body means gangrene sets in, along with acidity, bacteria and disease. By the time it reaches you, the chicken has been transported to the mandi, then its legs have been tied and it is taken upside down with all its brethren on a motorcycle/ bicycle to a local shop. Then it is fed its own feces while it waits on a roadside cage to be chopped. It inhales all the toxic car fumes that stay in its kidneys. So essentially you get a poisoned, diseased, gangrenous dead body to eat – and no amount of spices will remove the toxicity from its body. Most chicken are covered with feces and studies have repeatedly shown that this does not go even after 40 rinses. In fact washing merely removes the visible fecal matter while forcing harmful bacteria into the chicken’s skin. This is whether you eat chicken at home or in a five star hotel or a posh club. That is why crows, squirrels, rats, dogs, cats, mongooses and any other meat tastes exactly the same.

In fact an uncooked chicken is considered one of the most dangerous items in the kitchen. More than 60% of poultry is contaminated with salmonella, camphylobacter or other micro-organisms that spread through the birds from slaughter to packaging. Each year over 20 million Indians get sick from chicken; the precise figure is unknown since most cases are never reported. 

According to the Daily Mail in England, chicken is only 51% of the chicken meat. The rest is chemicals, water and pig skin and entrails. That is why chicken meat is so rubbery and tasteless.

Same problem in each country.

Companies in Holland / Belgium import about 60,000 tons a year of “chicken” that comes from Asia (us and Thailand). This meat is pumped with a chemical mix and sold to the rest of Europe. This “plastic” chicken goes to Indian curry houses, Chinese restaurants and takeaways which disguise it with highly- spiced sauces and colourings. Some is sold to small butchers and cheap supermarket foods. This was first revealed by Panorama, a watchdog programme of BBC TV. Panorama found traces of pig in cheap chicken nuggets sold by Sainsbury's. The rest of the meat was salt, stabilisers, milk protein lactose, dried glucose syrup and dextrose to counteract the salt. The pig was described as hydrolised protein. The Food Standards Agency is concerned that Moslems might be consuming chicken that contains pork.

If this is what they eat when they have watchdogs and standards in those countries, can you imagine what you are eating within India where there are no standards at all. 

Maneka Gandhi

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I attended a meeting of an organisation that brings successful businessmen and potential young entrepreneurs together. The talks ranged on management, how to make the existing fields better and how to find and keep customers etc. Standard stuff that you can find in a business help group. I can think of fifty new areas of self employment that one could make a lot of money and get happiness, that have to do with animals and environment. One of them is to start an institution training service dogs for the disabled.

Autism is a difficult disorder to diagnose in the beginning. The child seems distracted, bad tempered, withdrawn, moody. It is with a great deal of bewilderment that parents finally realize that their child is autistic. The disorder is not uncommon, in fact in America it is one in nine children now. In India every city has a special school for the autistic. When I was Minister for Social Justice, I paid for one in Chennai which quickly filled up.

Autism is a severe disorder that affects the way a child sees and interacts with the rest of the world. It effects sensory, memory, motor and postural control. The child has virtually no social and communication skills and is soon isolated both within the family and with other people. Many autistic children display a tendency to run away in open spaces making going to a public place almost impossible. Many autistic children also experience difficulty sleeping and suffer from insomnia. 

Children with autism are often misunderstood because their brains process information differently. While they understand facts and numbers they cannot understand concepts or ideas at all. Their brains process information in a very detailed way- they take in major and minor stimuli all together: for instance, a car driving by, the smell of their clothing and the sound of a dog barking to make a decision. Too many details cause them to become confused , frightened and angry. They express little or no attachment to humans , the concept of mother or brother is not immediately apparent to them.

Dogs have been proven to be an asset for children diagnosed with autism and their families. They provide a social "bridge" for children who are often excluded by others because of their behavior or lack of social interaction. They provide comfort as well as calm autistic children . Autistic children who run away and hide can also be quickly and easily found by assistance dogs that are trained to locate them. 

Dogs have been used for many years by the blind. Abroad most old age centres and some hospitals have dogs specially in the children’s wards because they have realized the benefits of the human-animal interaction. They have found the patients heal faster, the elderly suffer from fewer physical problems. 

Now dogs are being trained to help those with autism. Families say they have seen marked improvement in their children. The support group Autism Speaks includes a list of dog-training groups. A person with autism is a person with a disability and a service animal is any dog or other animal individually trained to provide assistance to someone with a disability.

Guide dogs for the blind provide visual help, taking them through dangers invisible to the human. Guide dogs for the deaf are trained to alert their owner to important noises or other things requiring human intervention, such as a smoke alarm, a crying baby, a telephone ringing, a knock at the door. An autistic person is easily confused by minor sights and smells and his brain becomes confused on which is important to deal with : the smell of a cloth, the car passing by, the sound of a bird – all these get equal attention and cause the brain to overstimulate and create panic and withdrawal. Autism service dogs are trained to help the human prioritize information and to take them through potentially dangerous situations. A normal dog will calm the child, divert him from harming himself, correct his balance, alert him to important sounds, steer around obstacles for instance. Having a dog with an autistic child has many benefits : the child is safer and stops running away when frightened; the child’s social skills become better; the family can go out together safely and confidently; the children become calmer giving them an increased attention span and a greater aptitude for learning

These dogs are companions that assist increase the safety of the child and reduce the stress level of the family. These dogs are naturally interesting which often draws the attention of the autistic child as well as others. The child is drawn into social interaction . Dogs are taught to nudge a child that is performing repetitive behavior, this touch is often all that is required to redirect the child from this behavior. Dogs can provide independence by allowing the child to walk with the dog as opposed to constantly holding the hand of a parent or adult. Austistic children are noticed to have an increase in vocabulary after being paired with a dog. The children seem to be more comfortable in speaking with the dog . Dogs provide a certain level of comfort that can often improve a child’s ability to sleep more throughout the night. Autistic children with dogs have been documented to feel less anger and experience less acts of aggression compared to the time before receiving an assistance dog. Assistance dogs are taught to track the child in the event that they run or go missing. This ability to locate the child quickly, greatly reduces the risk of serious harm

A study by the University of Montreal shows that trained service dogs can actually reduce anxiety levels in autistic children. 42 children were measured for the amount of cortisol in their saliva – a hormone that is produced by the body in response to stress – after they were given dogs. The findings published in Psychoneuroendocrinology, showed that stress levels went down.

5% of India suffers from disability. They have very little help. Training dogs for the disabled is very big business abroad. Why not start it here? Normal Indian dogs, from the roads, as it were, will get a new chance at life and so will the child and the family they protect. In 1996, National Service Dogs for Children with Autism was created and they train organisations round the world. For more information on NSD, visit www.nsd.on.ca. If nothing else, think of it as a business opportunity.

Maneka Gandhi

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My animal heroes, like Solomon the Wise’s, are ants. So here is another piece about them. 
 
Had they the size to match their practical intelligence, organizational skills and strength, ants would clearly have been masters of the universe. Look at their cities, what we call ant colonies. They contain complex ventilation systems that remove carbon dioxide and bring in fresh air. They have hundreds of miles of well laid out sewers that drain waste into special recycling chambers. They have an incredibly complex transportation system including highways. Each ant city is not just an engineering marvel that keeps its millions of inhabitants comfortable but each city has its unique features. Delhi is nothing like Mumbai or Bhubaneshwar. Nor are their cities.
 
Each of the 11,800 species has a different kind of home. 
 
Some ants live in underground tunnels or build earthen mounds. Others live inside trees or in plants. Some construct nests of tree leaves. Lasius fuliginous ants build ‘carton nests’ of bricks formed by chewing up pieces of wood cemented together with honeydew which they get from milking aphids.  
 
Each colony consists of a series of underground chambers, connected to each other and the surface of the earth by small tunnels. The biggest ant colony was found in Japan with 306 million ants and 1 million queens living in 45,000 interconnected nests over an area of 2.7 sq km!
 
The colony is built and maintained by legions of worker ants. They dig these nests under stones, dead trees or underground. They dig with their legs and carry the earth away with their mouths. Ant nests can be just below the surface or upto 35 feet deep, Western Harvester ants make a small mound on top, but then tunnel up to 15 feet straight down to hibernate during winter. Nest building displaces a huge amount of soil. Ants constructing an average-sized mound carry 80,000 kg of soil to the surface. When you see perfect round balls or hills on the earth’s surface, this is actually balls of earth shifted from underneath by ants. An underground city is of three thousand chambers and four million ants, the approximate population of South Delhi. 
 
The newly mated queen digs a single-chambered nest, seals herself in, and rears broods of workers, upto a 1,000 eggs a day for years. The brood hatches in a week and feeding on secretions from the queen, grows to maturity in a month. These workers forage for food for the next brood of eggs. And so the colony expands.  
 
Like us, ants build homes for shelter, child rearing, food storage and temperature control Ant-nest design has a basic theme: vertical tunnels for movement and transport, and horizontal chambers for work, storage, and sleep. The engineer-ants who build the nest are so precise that if one group starts digging from one end and the other from the other end, they will meet exactly in the middle. 
 
Just as we prefer to save time and money by building their houses against existing walls, red ant engineers first try to find support structures before their workers excavate the nests. In cool climates, ants build their nests under stones which will be warmed by the sun. In warm climates, especially in the tropics, many ant species nest in tree cavities, constructing nests by pulling leaves together and binding them in place with thousands of strands of silk taken from their own larvae.
 
Just as our houses range from single rooms to elaborate mansions, so do theirs. The little yellow meadow ant makes complex houses that are more than a metre in depth – which in human terms means an apartment block larger than the erstwhile World Trade Center. They then camouflage this huge building by covering it with vegetation. The most impressive nests are those of wood ants who build huge mounds out of pine needles and other forest floor debris that reach a metre in height, several metres in circumference and go several metres into the ground beneath the mound.
 
We use heaters and coolers, ants too keep the temperature within their nests strictly controlled. The Messor aciculatus ant who makes the deepest nest in the world, tunnels 4 metres down so that ant larvae can survive and grow even in winter, because at that depth the temperature remains constant all year long, cool in summer and warm in winter. 
 
The Leaf Cutter ants make turrets on top of their nests, which can be opened or closed in case of rain by covering them with gravel or mud. 
 
Like us, ants have specific rooms for specific purposes. Each room, 2000 in an average colony, is about 8 to 12 inches in diameter and workers are continually adding more. The chambers are used for raising larvae, food storage, garbage disposal, nursery, and even a burial chamber where ants carry in their dead from outside. The nursery for the queen and her babies is usually in the core of the nest guarded by soldier ants. The nannies who take care of the young keep the eggs and larvae in different groups and chambers according to their ages. At night they move the eggs and larvae into the deeper chambers to protect them from the cold and during the day, to the top of the nest to get the sun. The older workers get the rooms on the edges of the nest. During winter the colony hibernates in the deepest rooms. 
 
Ants are finicky housekeepers. Special “maintenance ants” keep the nest clean and in good repair by throwing the rubbish outside the nest or into a special garbage chamber within the nest which is separate from the food and other chambers. 
 
Like our pantry, ants have a food store. Sweet food like biscuits and cake crumbs are softened by ant saliva and stored here. Just as we keep cows in sheds, they keep herds of aphids in sheds, take them to pasture on the leaves, defend them against predators and then milk them and store the honeydew. Insects like mealybugs are allotted special guest rooms because they secrete sweet droplets as well.  
 
Leaf-cutter ants grow their own food in well-maintained ‘fungus gardens’. When the fungus is ready, it is harvested and sent by the gardeners to the nurseries and adult dining rooms. Each field is plowed and furrowed like ours. 
 
For some people the idea of ants having proper homes, gardens and families must be strange but it only shows the similarity of all life. The next time an ant crosses your path, remember he too is probably hurrying home from work!
 
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Professor Anil K. Gupta of IIM, Ahmedabad is one of my heroes. Instead of just being a college teacher, twenty years ago he made his students into an NGO called Sristi to start looking into the practices of villagers with a special eye towards organic farming practices and animal medicine. He went on to patenting rural inventions and holding organic food festivals which lakhs of sellers and buyers attend. He has a magazine called Honeybee and if anyone ever deserved the highest government honour for recording cultural practices, it is Anil Gupta. His teams walk for hundreds of miles every year to scout and celebrate grassroots innovations and outstanding traditional knowledge and local conservation ethics. According to him “The Indian dream to become a knowledge society depends upon India’s ability to make knowledge assets more valuable and precious than physical assets. The lack of possession of physical or financial assets would then determine to much lesser extent the destiny of an individual or group than the possession of ideas, innovations and other knowledge assets. We must sow the seeds of imagination and innovation early in life.”
 
In the course of investigations, their team has found many practices that would be called “magic” today: the farmer of old could predict which day it would rain six months from now, just by looking at the weather of today. E.g. If the moon is full on the 18th of January, it will rain on the 20th of October. They look at questions like “Why do sugar grains attract small red ants whereas jaggery attracts bigger black ants?”
 
Read this: It used to be an age old practice in India to collect herbs by following animals, e.g. the mongoose is an enemy of the snake. After fighting with it the mongoose, the mongoose runs into the forest and rolls over an herb to get rid of the snake bite. The healers follow the mongoose and collect this herb for healing snake bites. 
 
He and many other cultural scientists say that most omens are rooted in the wisdom of ancients, that they have a basis in science. Study of Omens by Bhojraj Dwivedi is a well researched book into Sakuna Shastra, the ancient science of omens. It talks about the study of the seers of the sounds and actions of animals and birds with a modern science based interpretation. The signs that foretell the future are not based on superstition but on a very sharp observation of animals whose perception is much keener than ours and who can interpret the coming effects of our actions much quicker than humans. Who has forgotten the panicky movements of animals away from the shores and lowlands, days before the tsunami came?
 
I am still reading Shankar Adawal’s Charms Talismans and Spells and the last chapter is about omens. Let me repeat some: 
 
· If a cow is met at the start of journey that is auspicious
· If a cow is surrounded by many flies or dogs, rain will set in.
· If a cow bellows at night it is not a good sign. If a bull bellows at night, it is.
· If a dog brings a wet bone before the person, that is considered auspicious and a good omen for some good work
· If a dog standing in a southeasterly direction, howls while facing the sun, he is warning you of theft or fire
· If a dog picks up a shoe and approaches a person with his mouth upward, it is a fortunate indication. A dog that smells a shoe indicates a fruitful journey ahead
· If a group of dogs howl at night it indicates an earthquake  
 
If in the last part of the day, you see a crow coming from the southeast direction ,you will earn some money by the morning .
 
· While starting a journey, if a crow appears from the east, it indicates a fruitful result.
· If a crow crows in the house, you should be ready to receive a guest.
· In case two crows feed each other, the person proceeding on journey will remain comfortable.
· If you see a crow in the early part of the day flying from the northeast direction, an important and auspicious message is coming.
· While leaving the house , if you see a crow sitting on a pig, there is going to be legal trouble. A crow sitting on a donkey or camel is auspicious
· Crows sitting in a circle means a loss through an enemy
· If leaving the house, if you hear the squawk of a wild parrot, your work will be completed successfully
· An appearance of a horse from the North is always auspicious while starting a journey. The same result if you find a donkey on your left. If you talk about a rabbit or a snake while starting off, it is auspicious.
· If at the last part of the day, parrot speaks while facing the southeast, your enemies will be destroyed.
· If a man sees a Neelkanth (Indian roller bird) on his way it is an auspicious omen.
· If you come across an elephant, horse, peacock, bull, swan, a pot full of water, ornaments, lotus flower and a virgin carrying washed clothes you will have success in your mission.  
 
If you get into the habit of observing and recording animals you will see how much they tell you about themselves and you.
 
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